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    Notes techniques N°16 | Supporting Access to and Retention in Employment for Women by Enhancing Child Care Services in Turkey

    Female labor force participation remains low in Turkey compared to other OECD countries and labor market attachment is particularly low among women with children. In recent years, government policy has focused on the expansion of child care services as a means to support women’s participation in employment. Yet there are significant gaps in the provision of flexible quality child care services and demand remains constrained by social norms, practices and affordability issues. Child care and preschool services are mostly organized by public providers. Legislation that aims to encourage businesses to set-up child care services for their employees lacks enforcement mechanisms to be effective. Greater public investment in private provision and regulation changes could result in more affordable private provision for families and encourage the development of private sector provision, including in Organized Industrial Zones. Municipalities could also play a stronger role in providing child care services....
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    Etudes de l'AFD n°6 | Contributions et limites de la finance « verte » dans l’aide environnementale : le cas d’une ligne de crédit en Egypte

    Au cours des vingt dernières années, la mise à contribution des marchés financiers et des banques à la réalisation d’objectifs environnementaux s’est imposée comme un des grands thèmes associés au développement durable. Au coeur du projet protéiforme de « verdissement » de la finance réside l’idée d’une réorientation des flux financiers vers des activités économiques bénéfiques ou comparativement moins nuisibles pour l’environnement. Y contribuent entre autres la constitution d’offres de crédit adaptées au financement d’investissements environnementaux, la mise en place de fonds de placement soumis à des exigences environnementales ou encore une meilleure prise en compte de l’environnement dans les dispositifs de gestion des risques des banques....
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    Research Papers No. 21 | Powering Africa: Facing the Financing and Reform Challenges

    Africa faces chronic power problems, including insufficient generation capacity, low connectivity, poor reliability and high costs, all of which constrain development. Power capacity additions in Sub-Saharan Africa (excl. SA) since the 1990’s were minuscule. Historically, investments in the power sector in Africa have come mostly from governments or public utilities (with foreign aid support). In recent years these sources of funding have been flat. The fastest new sources of funding are from Independent Power Producers (IPPs) and from China. To understand the determinant of the new sources, the paper analyses the effect of several key factor and find non-expected results, such as there is no obvious correlation between unbundling, or the presence an independent regulator, and the level of private investment through IPPs; or that there is no correlation between Chinese investment in generation and resource rich countries (dispelling the myth that Chinese firms are only interested in Africa’s resources). The paper delivers several recommendations that indicate that more attention needs to be given to issues related to planning, procurement and contracting as well as securing revenue flows.)...
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